Properties of Common Spring Materials For Spring Wire

High-Carbon Spring Wire

Material Music Wire ASTM A 228 Hard Drawn ASTM A 227 High Tensile Hard Drawn ASTM A 679 Oil Tempered ASTM A 229 Carbon Valve ASTM A 230
Nominal Analysis C - .70 - 1.00% Mn - .20 - 60% C - .45- .85% Mn- .60-1.30% C - .65 - .1.00% Mn - .60-1.30% C - .55 - .85% MN - .60 -1.20% C - .60 - .75% Mn - .60 - .90%
Minimum Tensile Strength 230-399 CLI 147-283 CLII 171-324 258-350 -- CLI 165-293 CLII 191-324 215-240
Modulus of Elasticity E psi x 10³ 30 30 30 30 30
Design Stress % Minimum Tensile 45 40 45 45 45
Modulus in Torsion G psi x 106 11.5 11.5 11.5 11.5 11.5
Maximim Temp. °F 250º 250º 250º 250º 250º
Maximum Temp. °C 121º 121º 121º 121º 121º
Rockwell Hardness C41-60 C31-52 C41-60 C42-55 C45-49
Method of Manufacture Chief Uses Special Properties Cold drawn.High and uniform tensile.High quality springs and wire forms. Cold drawn.Average stress applications.Lower cost springs and wire forms. Cold drawn.Higher quality springs and wire forms. Cold drawn and heat treated before fabrication,General purpose spring wire. Cold drawn and heat treated before fabrication suitable for cyclic applications.
General. High-Carbon spring steels are the most commonly used of all springs materials. Try to use these materials in preference to others because that are least expensive, readily available, easily worked, and most popular. These materials are not satisfactory for high or low temperatures or for shock or impact loading.

Alloy Steel Wire

Material Chrome Vanadium ASTM A 231 Chome silicon ASTM A 401
Nominal Analysis C- .48 - .53% Cr-.80-1.10% V - .15 min% C-.51-.59% Cr-.60-.80% si-1.20-1.60%
Minimum Tensile Strength 190-300 235-300
Modulus of Elasticy E psi x 10 ³ 30 30
Design Stress % Minimum Tensile 45 45
Modulus in Torsion G psi x 106 11.5 11.5
Maximum Temp.°:F 425º 475º
Maximum Temp. °C 218.5 246
Rockwell Hardness C41-55 C48-55
Method of Manufacture Chief Uses Special Propeterties Cold drawn and heat treated before fabrication.Used for shock loads and moderately elevated temperature. Cold drawn and heat treated before fabrication.Used for shock loads and moderately elevated temperature.
General.The alloy spring steels have a definite plac in the fueld of spring materials,particularly for conditions involving high stress and for applications where shock or impact loading occurs.Alloy spring steels also can withstand higher and lower temperatures than the annealed or pre not regularly stocked in a wide variety of sizes.

Stainless Steel Wire

AISI 302/304 ASTM A 313 AISI 316 ASTM A 313 (631) 17-7 PH ASTM A 313 (631)
Cr-17.0-19.0% Ni-8.0-10.0% Cr-16.0-18.0% Ni-10.0-14.0% Mo-2.0-3.0% Cr-16.0-18.0% Ni-6.5-7.5% Al-.75-1.5%
125-325 110-245 Cond CH 235-335
28 28 29.5
30-40 40 45
10 10 11
550º 550º 650º
288º 288º 343º
C35-45 C35-45 C38-57
Cold drawn,general purpose,corrosion and heat resistant.Magnetic in spring temper. Cold drawn,Heat resistant and betler corrosion resistance than 302.Magnetic in spring temper. Cold drawn & precipitation hardened after fabrication.High strengh and general purpose corrosion resistance.Slightly magnetic in spring temper.
General.The use of stainless spring steels has increased considerably in recent years.Sevaral new compositions are now available to withstand corrosion.All of these materials can be used for high temperatures up to 650°f.

Non-Ferrous Alloy Wire

Material Phosphor Bronze A ASTM B 159 Beryllium Copper ASTM B 197 Monel 400 AMS 7233 Monel K 500 QQ-N-286
Nominal Analysis Cu-94.0%-96.0% Sn-4.0-6.0% Cu-98.0% Be-2.0% Ni-66.0% Cu-31.5% C/fe Ni-65.0% Cu-29.5% C/fe/A/Ti
Minimum Tensile Strength 105-145 150-230 145-180 160-200
Modulus of Elasticity E psi x 10 ³ 15 18.5 26 26
Design Stress% Minimum Tensile 40 45 40 40
Modulus in Torsion G psi x 106 6.25 7.0 9.5 9.5
Maximum Temp. °:F 200º 400º 450º 550º
Maximum Temp. °C 93.8º 204º 232º 288º
Rockwell Hardness B98-104 C35-42 C23-32 C23-35
Method of Manufacture Chief Uses Special Properties Cold drawn.Good corrosion resistance and electrical conductivity. Cold drawn and may be mill hardened before fabrication.Good corrosion resistance and electrical conductivity.High physicals. Cold drawn,Good corrosion resistance at moderately elevated temperature. ExcelLent corrosion resistance at moderately elevated temperature
General. Copper-base alloys are important spring materials because of their good electrical properties combined with their excellent resistance to corrosion. Although these materials are more expensive than the high-carbon and the alloy steels,they nevertheless are frequently used in electrical components and in subzero temperatures. All copper-base alloys are drawn to the American wire gauge (same as Brown & Sharpe gauge) and are nonmagnetic.

High-Temperature Alloy Wire

210-2500
Material A 286 Alloy Inconel 600 QQ-W-390 Inconel 718 Inconel X-750 AMS 5698,5699
Nominal Analysis Ni -- 26.0% Cr -- 15.0% Fe--53.0% Ni -- 76.0% Cr -- 15.8% Fe -- 7.2% Ni -- 52.5% Cr -- 18.6% Fe -- 18.5% Inconel X-750 Ams 5698.5699
Minimum Tensile Strength 160-200 170-230 No.IT 155 min.Spg.T 190-230
Modulus of Elasticity E psi x 10 ³ 29 31 29 31
Design Stress% Minimum Tensile 35 40 40 40
Modulus in Torsion G psi x 106 10.4 11.0 11.2 12
Maximum Temp Fº 950º 700º 1100º 750–1100º
Maximum Temp. °C 510º 371º 593º 399-593º
Rockwell Hardness C35-42 C35-45 C40 - 50 C34-39 C42-48
Method of Manufacture Chief Uses Special Properties Cold drawn.and precipitation hardened after fabrication.good corrosion resistance at elevated temperature. Cold drawn.Good corrosion resistance at elevated temperature. Cold drawn and preipittion hardened after. fabrication.Good corrosion resistance at elevated temperature. Cold drawn and precipitation hardened after fabrication. Good corrosion resistance at elevated temperature.
General. Nickel-based alloys are especially useful spring materials to combat corrosion and to withstand both elevated and below-zero temperature application. Their nonmagnetic characteristic is important for such devices as gyroscopes,chronoscopes, and indicating instruments. These materials have high electrical resistance and should not be used for conductors of electrical current.